The Error and Deception of Replacement Theology

The Error and Deception of Replacement Theology

Bible Church Israel

I write this document on the 85th anniversary of Kristallnacht in Germany. A devilish night when the Nazis and their sympathizers throughout Germany destroyed and burned down synagogues, vandalized Jewish property and assaulted Jews at will. The question must be asked, “What was the Church doing!” the answer is; Nothing!  And then the next question is, “Why?” The answer is simple; because Replacement Theology, strongly advocated for by Martin Luther and other clerics of the time, had not only disinvested the Jews of the promises made to them in the Abrahamic Covenant bur had called for them to be despised and rejected as a people. In fact, Luther’s teachings in his book, “On the Jews and their lies”(1543) had encouraged German Christians to do everything possible to see that the Jews were plundered and banished from society.


Having stated this I wish my readers to note that the views expressed in this document are not isolated but in many respects are mainstream as they have been held by great Christian leaders and denominational leaders through the centuries such as the Puritans, John and Charles Wesley, Bishop Ryle of Liverpool, Charles Haddon Spurgeon, Billy Graham, Jack Hayford, Derek Prince, David Pawson, Lance Lambert, Reinhard Bonnke, Angus Buchan and many more.


                                                               The Bible


“Now the Lord had said to Abram: Get out of your country, from your family and from your father’s house to a land that I will show you. I will make you a great nation; I will bless you and make your name great; and you shall be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you and I will curse him who curses you; and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”                                                             

 Genesis 12:1-3


“And I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and your descendants after you. Also, I give to you and your descendants after you the land in which you are a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.”

                                                            Genesis 17:7-8

“He is the Lord our God; His judgments are in all the earth. He remembers His covenant forever, the word which He commanded, for a thousand generations, the covenant which He made with Abraham, and His oath to Isaac, and confirmed it to Jacob for a statute, to Israel as an everlasting covenant, saying, “To you I will give the land of Canaan as the allotment of your inheritance.”

                                                            Psalms 105: 7-11


“Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers. For the gifts and calling of God are irrevocable.”

                                                            Romans 11:28-29


“And this I say that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years later, cannot annul the covenant that was confirmed before God in Christ, that it should make the promise of no effect.”

                                                            Galatians 3:17

“For when God made a promise to Abraham, because He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself, saying, “Surely blessing I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply you.” And so, after he had patiently endured, he obtained the promise. For men indeed swear by the greater, and an oath for confirmation is for them an end of all dispute. Thus God, determining to show more abundantly to the heirs of promise the immutability of His counsel, confirmed it by an oath, that by two immutable things, in which it is impossible for God to lie, we might have strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold of the hope that is set before us.”

                                                            Hebrews 6: 13-18



Replacement theology is the idea that the Jewish people, because of their rejection of Jesus’ messianic credentials, have forfeited the promises made to them in the Abrahamic Covenant and consequently they no longer have a national destiny in the land that God promised them as an everlasting possession. The Church is now the new Israel of God, and their only hope is to believe in Jesus and join the Church.

This effectively means that their modern-day restoration holds no biblical significance, is nothing more than an accident of history and at best the result of colonialism and the conflict around it. Israel is merely a political entity, and its existence has the potential to engulf the whole world in a catastrophic war. Many preachers constantly assert this, and I have just read an article by one such preacher wherein, writing of Israel’s war with Hamas, he boldly discounted any biblical significance to Israel’s restoration in our time on the grounds that Jesus in Himself is the fulfillment of all the promises that God ever made to the Jewish people in Abraham including that of the land of Canaan as an everlasting possession. He has no biblical basis upon which to make such an outrageous claim!

Naturally then, replacement theology is highly deceptive because to a certain degree it is right in that the Gospel of Jesus is the only way of salvation, and this is true for Jews and Gentiles alike (Romans 1:16). However, it is a serious error in that nowhere in the Bible is it ever stated that the Abrahamic Covenant with its promise to Abraham, and his descendants in their generations, that the land of Canaan is theirs as an everlasting possession, has in any way been altered, abolished or changed. On the contrary, the New Testament repeatedly affirms that all the promises made to Abraham and the fathers are irrevocable and cannot in any way be annulled because God does not lie!

Why would this be so! Because the Jewish people are, by the promises in the Abrahamic Covenant, set aside by God Himself as the vehicle of world redemption (John 4:22) (Romans 9:1-5) (Romans 15:27). That is, the means by which God reveals Himself to the world, brings His purpose into the world and in the end consummates it. Even their unbelief is a blessing as it serves the nations of the world with the Gospel (Romans 11:15, 28). Therefore, though being enemies of God then, they remain” beloved for the sake of the fathers” and indeed, their rejection of Jesus as the “chief cornerstone” is the “day the Lord has made, and we will rejoice and be glad in it” (Psalm 118:22-24).  Furthermore, Paul affirms that in the end their rejection of Jesus messianic credentials will only be partial and, when swept away, will pave the way for Him to return to Jerusalem as He promised (Romans 11:25-26) (Matthew 23:37-39). It is this mystery that still evades the wider Church and has been at the root of antisemitism through the centuries, which included the Holocaust, and now this deceptive teaching perpetrates another great evil by disconnecting the Church from its biblical responsibilities to Israel at a time when the Jews again are facing another attempt at to annihilate them. Haman, the Amalekite, is at work again and an” Esther Church” is needed to save them!


The Abrahamic Covenant

This Covenant is first announced in Genesis 12, and then its terms are laid out in chapters 15, 17 and 22, and promised to Abraham’s children in their descendants and in their generations. It is an everlasting Covenant since it constitutes God’s decision to save the world through the substitutionary work of Christ on the cross (Galatians 3:8). God will thereby reconcile the world to Himself by giving those who receive Christ Jesus by faith, the gift of eternal life. For this reason, it had to be an everlasting covenant in all respects. It places Abraham and his children at the very center of this covenant as they will become the means by which God mediates to the world the knowledge of Himself, the coming of Christ, the good news of the gift of eternal life and the second coming of Jesus. Also, and this is very important, it therefore shackles God’s redemptive work in Christ to the historical journey of the Jewish people and galvanizes them into a nation by giving them the land of Canaan as an everlasting possession. In fact, Peter in his powerful sermon recorded in the third chapter of Acts, not only affirms that the Jews were called to deliver the death of Christ to the world (Acts 3:18) but that all these things were done to fulfill the promises made to them in the Abrahamic Covenant (Acts 3:25). Jesus affirmed, as did Paul, that they would return to Jerusalem at the very end of the age to facilitate His second coming (Luke 21:24; Romans 11:25-26). The “Deliverer comes out of Zion or Jerusalem, or the Mount of Olives (Acts 1:9-11).

The Abrahamic Covenant, by virtue of the fact that it had to be eternal or everlasting, meant that God alone would have to undertake to keep its components and thus when made with Abraham he was put to sleep and not allowed to actually make it, or cut it with God. God Himself and alone, without Abraham’s participation, made it by a blood ceremony and oath to Abraham. This is recorded in Genesis 15:7-21. It is thus unconditional and everlasting and at its very root is the promise that the land of Canaan will be the possession of Abraham and his descendants in their generations (Genesis 15:7-9).

In all then these are the five crucial and eternal components of the Abrahamic Covenant:

  1. An eternal promise of land (Genesis 17:7-8)
  2. An eternal mission (Genesis 12:1-3)
  3. A journey of suffering and conflict (Genesis 15: 9-12;17)
  4. A promise of a coming Messiah who would die for the sins of the world (Genesis 22:6-10)
  5. A promise of blessing and cursing (Genesis 12:3).

Again, it is important to note that this is an everlasting unconditional covenant rooted in God’s grace alone because it chiefly embodies God’s plan of world redemption by which whoever believes in the promised Messiah will receive eternal life (Galatians 3:8). Paul affirms this in Galatians 3: 9, 14, and 29. That is, if we are of faith, then we are blessed with believing Abraham; if we have received the gift of the Holy Spirit, it is because of what God promised to Abraham and, if we are Christ’s, then we are in fact Abraham’s children according to the promise that God made to him in the covenant. In other words, the covenant is fully intact and effective until this very day because God does not lie and by it has fulfilled His promise to bless all the families of the earth.

It is also important to note that it is in fact one covenant not five covenants! This means that if one part fails then all the parts fail.  James upholds this principle in his epistle when he states that if you break one of the Ten Commandments then you have broken them all (James 2:10). This means that if the part of the Abrahamic Covenant that promises land to the Jewish people as an everlasting possession fails, then all the parts fail, even that part which promises you eternal life through Christ’s once for all death on the cross. God has indeed lied to you, and you are truly still in your sins, without hope and lost! This is precisely why the restoration of Israel in our time is not a political accident but the manifestation of God’s faithfulness to His covenant made with Abraham 4000 years ago. It is the ongoing journey of Israel to mediate God’s redemptive plan to the world and this will finally be seen in the return of Christ to the Mount of Olives (Matthew 23:39) (Romans 11:25-26) (Zechariah 12:10).  The Disciples knew all of this, and consequently they enquired of Jesus when He would restore the kingdom to Israel (Acts 1:6). He never denied that such a restoration would take place but rather asserted that, because of Israel’s rejection of His messianic credentials and unbelief, the gospel would now go to the nations until the fulness of the Gentiles have come in.  Then all Israel would be saved, and the Messiah would come out of Jerusalem! Replacement Theology denies all of this, attacks the Abrahamic Covenant, declares God to be a liar and disconnects the Church from its biblical responsibilities to Israel.

Replacement Theology drives the Church to stand by once again in silence and do nothing while the Jews are again being murdered incinerated, raped and literally burned in ovens. Just as it did on Kristallnacht 85 years ago. It is a deception that attacks the very heart of scripture and God knew that this would happen because the call of God over Israel was to penetrate a wicked and evil world, dominated by the Devil, with the light of His good news in Christ. Their journey is not over as they have now returned to their promised homeland to birth the final and great event of world redemption, the return of Christ. This will finally bring real peace to the whole world but, thanks to Replacement Theology, the Church is generally blinded to this fact and has far too often, as history undeniably proves, sided with the Devil in his plan to exterminate the Jews. It was for this reason that God said that He would bless those who bless her and curse him who curses her.  Many “hims” have risen up in the Church to curse the Jews and thereby to deny the   everlasting Abrahamic Covenant that God made with them; sadly, even today!


Important Passages of scripture

There are a few passages of scripture that those espousing Replacement Theology refer to in an attempt to prove their thesis. These are as follows:

Galatians 3:16

“Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. He does not say, “And

 to seeds,” as of many, but as of one, “And to your Seed,” who is Christ.”

This verse is written in the context of a discussion wherein Paul is asserting that salvation is not to be found by keeping the Law, as some in his day were asserting, but rather by faith in a Seed, Messiah Jesus, who was promised in one of the five vital components in the Abrahamic Covenant. This promise is found in Genesis 22, where we have the record of Abraham being called to sacrifice his unique and only son Isaac. This is a picture of Jesus’ death and because Abraham was faithful in doing so God promised that another Isaac would come into the world who would, by the sacrifice of His perfect life, atone for the sins of the world (John 8:56). This passage is in no way removing the promise made to Abraham and his descendants in the covenant by which the land of Canaan is bequeathed to them as an everlasting possession. It is simply asserting the one that promises the coming of Christ as the way of salvation.

Galatians 6:15-16

“For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but

  a new creation. And as many as walk according to this rule, peace and mercy

  be upon them, and upon the Israel of God.”

This verse is referring to the fact that saved Jews and Gentiles are together part of God’s spiritual Olive Tree which is Israel because it is a Jewish tree with Jewish roots that goes back thousands of years.  They take their identity from Christ alone and thus are a “one new man”, or new creation (Ephesians 2:14-18). Paul writes extensively about this in Romans eleven verses seventeen to twenty-four. This is the same chapter where he also asserts that all the promises made to the Jewish people through Abraham, Isaac and Jacob remain intact because the “gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable” (Romans 11:29). In fact, in verse 28 he has the audacity to suggest that the unbelieving and Christ rejecting Jews are still the elect of God! The question we must ask then is, “In what sense?” He is clearly referring to the fact that while they are enemies of God by their rejection of Christ or unbelief, they nevertheless have not forfeited the promises that God made to them in the Abrahamic Covenant. In short, they were elected in Abraham to be the vehicle of world redemption. God is not a liar, and He made an unconditional covenant with them through their fathers that in the end He will honor in all respects. This He has sworn to by His word and character; two immutable things by which it is impossible for God to lie!


Things to ponder:

In the end then those who teach Replacement Theology have to answer:

  1. Why has Israel re-emerged on the stage of history again never to be exiled again as God said that she would (Amos 9:14-15)?
  2. Why have the Jewish people returned to Jerusalem just as Jesus said they would (Luke 21:24)?
  3. Why did Jesus say that His second coming is dependent upon a welcome from the Jewish people living in Jerusalem (Matthew 23:37-39)?
  4. Why does scripture teach that an awful judgement is about to fall upon the nations on the coming Great Day of the Lord because they have embraced antisemitism and attempted to disinvest the Jews of the land that God bequeathed to them in the Abraham Covenant by constantly attempting to divide it (Joel 3:1-3)?
  5. Why does God promise to defend the “political accident” of the restored nation of Israel when all nations will in the end gather against it (Zechariah 12:1-3)?
  6. Why does God promise a unique outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon Jerusalem and beyond by which He will remove Jewish unbelief in Jesus’ messianic credentials (Zechariah 12:10-14)?
  7. Why are the foundations and gates of the coming new Jerusalem emblazoned with the names of the Twelve Apostles and the Twelve Tribes of the children of Israel (Revelation 21:12-14)?


Final Considerations

The Charters of Hamas, Islamic Jihad the PLO, Hezbollah and that of Iran call for the total destruction of the nation of Israel and the murder of the Jewish people everywhere.  In other words, they are driven by the same devilish evil spirit that drove the Nazis in their desire to bring about the “final solution”. They say it clearly and repeatedly and even boast about it and make videos depicting it and yet the world still supports them and rallies to their cause across the nations as we have now seen in the capitals of the world.  They openly call for the extermination of the Jewish people just as the masses did in Germany 85 years ago. Nothing has changed and the same Devil sensing his coming defeat in the unfolding restoration of Israel in the holy land is mobilizing people everywhere to hate the Jews and their state. The cry is the same everywhere, “From the river to the sea Palestine will be free!” They mean exactly what they say and the barbaric attack on Israel on October the 7th,  in the name of Islam, proves it. Sadly, Christian Ministers, Priests and Pastors excuse these goals and the atrocities committed by these peoples and all too often stand with them, just as they stood with the Nazis in the Second World War. They see no biblical reason why they should stand by and support the Jews. Why is this? Because of Replacement Theology! But God is watching, and He will intervene because Israel remains “beloved for the sake of the fathers,” and this means that God is watching over His Covenant with Abraham to fulfill it. Blessed are they who bless what God is doing in the earth by blessing Israel!

Malcolm Hedding

That One Sling Shot

That One Sling Shot


“For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.” Ephesians 6:12

“For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty in God for pulling down strongholds…..” 2 Corinthians 10:4

In these days of such sorrow and shock in Israel many have asked me, “What can we do to help Israel?” This is a very good question and in many respects the Church generally is confused and double minded about what its response should be. This has to be urgently corrected if it is to become the tool that God wants it to be in His hand in this unfolding conflict.

In this regard I believe that the Lord has clearly spoken to me as to what He requires from us. Essentially it is just, “One very powerful slingshot!” Allow me to explain:

1. The Ephesian letter exhortation

In this wonderful epistle, as Paul comes to its end, he exhorts the people of God to keep standing against evil by adorning the full armor of God and by understanding that our struggle is not against flesh and blood but against very evil principalities and powers in the heavenly places (Ephesians 6: 12).

This does not mean that those who contend with us are just innocent victims of greater and wicked powers that have somehow overcome them. This type of teaching is contextually wrong and false and leads to the condoning of evil in people and in the end confusion and inaction.

The fact is our struggle is against evil people like Hitler, Hamas and many more but we are not going to be victorious over them until we deal with the unseen and evil powers that they have willingly and enthusiastically given themselves over to so as to be empowered by them. Until we pull down these powers we will not be able to defeat them. These people, groups and regimes are not innocent victims and we in the end must overcome them. They themselves are evil and must be overcome. This is why Paul also said that our weapons are mighty and powerful in the pulling down of these unseen and wicked strongholds that assist the enemies of God in their rebellion against God, His Church in the world and Israel.

2. The story of David and Goliath

“Then David said to the Philistines ‘You come to me with a sword, with a spear, and with a javelin . But I come to you in the name of the Lord God of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defiled.” 1 Samuel 16:45

The first book of Samuel records a duel between good and evil that took place in the Elah valley just south east of Jerusalem. The Philistine Army gathered on one side of this valley with the intent of exterminating the nation of Israel. To accomplish this they had willingly and enthusiastically employed the help of a giant, who we are told in scripture was a part of the Anakim, who were the descendants of the Nephilim who were a hybrid race being part demonic and part human (See Genesis 6). In other words he had supernatural strength and single-handedly blasphemed against the God of Israel and challenged His people Israel. The Israelites trembled, feared and did not know what to do until David, an insignificant young lad, not older enough to go to war, stepped forward and with just one slingshot took down this demonically inspired giant paving the way for the army of Israel to destroy the Philistine army. Note, just one well directed slingshot defeated the evil enemies of Israel who had gathered to eliminate them. Believe me God, by Jesus Christ, is calling the Church to do the same today! Goliath is a picture of the unseen evil principalities in heavenly places and once he was removed by David the Philistines were disempowered, overcome and destroyed by the armies of Israel.

3. A story from the Second World War

With ferocious speed and power the Nazis rampaged through Europe bringing murder and mayhem in their wake and destruction upon the Jews. However, God called an insignificant and fairly unknown group in Wales to assault the demonic power and genocidal spirit behind them by just one slingshot! That is they were single minded and prayed continuously against the evil principalities that the wicked Nazis had willingly employed on their behalf. Rees Howells was the leader of this group of intercessors and so with a focused slingshot they opened the way for the British army to escape from Dunkirk and later to return with re-enforcements from USA and beyond to utterly liquidate the evil Nazis and save the Jews of Europe from complete annihilation. This remarkable story is well documented in the Book called, “Rees Howells Intercessor “ written by Norman Grubb. It was the very first book I read as a new born Christian and I believe that everyone should read it.

4. The calling before us now

Israel faces an enemy that for decades has set out to exterminate her. These are themselves very wicked people and they are empowered by evil principalities in the heavenly places. It is the same kind of principality that empowered the Nazis, Haman of Persia and many more and particularly the Amalekites of old. Today it has an unseen hold on Hamas, the Iranians, Hezbollah, Isis, Alqaeda and many more. Make no mistake it is very strong and powerful like Goliath and Israel will not defeat her enemies until it is pulled down in the heavenly places. This is why Paul said that our fight is not against flesh and blood but against these powers in unseen places.

In short our one and persistent slingshot must be that of urgent intercession against the evil principality behind Hamas and all its travelers . This is the urgent calling to the Church by the Holy Spirit at this time. Once this has been dealt with Israel will be able to decisively defeat this foe on the field of battle. Something hitherto that she has been unable to do since she withdrew from Gaza nearly two decades ago.


For near on half a century now Jesus has raised up millions of Christians who understand Israel’s role in God’s purpose of world redemption and who have come to her side in love and comfort because they know that her modern day restoration is not an accident of history but rather evidence of God’s faithfulness to His covenant made with Abraham 4000 years ago.It is this remarkable company of people that must now step forward onto the current battle line, like David, to take down Goliath with one slingshot by well focused and determined intercession. We have been called for this hour and let us arise to the challenge and trust God to help us all to be faithful. Remember, just one well focused slingshot!!!

Malcolm Hedding


The Outstretched arm of God

The Outstretched arm of God

Church Israel
Dear Friends,
 “So the Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm, with great terror and with signs and wonders.” Deuteronomy 26:8
Israel is presently in a state of shock and mourning but at the same time she has had to pick herself up and wage another war for her very survival. It is truly heartbreaking to watch this saga unfold, and we weep with her as we seek to do all that we can to stand beside her.
A chosen people
From the time that God called her into existence through the mission and call that God gave to Israel in Abraham she has endured one attempt after the other to exterminate her. This began in Egypt as the very same Nazi demonic spirit inspired Pharaoh to destroy her. The attempt to murder the Jews has persisted through history and we all know it. The truth is the Jews everywhere are targeted for destruction because they carry in their historical journey God’s plan to bless the nations and save them from sin, the Devil and destruction. Jesus knew this when He proclaimed that, ” Salvation is of the Jews (John 4:22). Paul acknowledged the same truth in his Roman epistle when he reminded his readers that everything we have and hold dear in terms of our salvation comes from the Jews (Romans 9:1-5).
In other words, the nation of Israel, by the call of God over her, is the vehicle of world redemption which challenges and reverses the strategy of the Devil to destroy forever the peoples of the world. It is this chosen call from heaven that has plunged the Jews and Israel into terrible conflict, and we are called to stand by and help her. By doing this we affirm and acknowledge her mission and the redemptive plan of God that flows through her to the world.
A set apart people
The enemies of the Jews and of Israel have always set aside special days of rampage by which to destroy them. Haman and his accomplices did this in Esther’s time as did the Nazi’s when they unleashed a specific night in Germany by which to assault Jews, kill them, burn their synagogues, and destroy their businesses. This has been called Kristalnaght.
This same demonic spirit has set aside the 13th October 2023, this very day as I write to you, as another day when Muslims are called to rise up all over the world, and in Israel, to attack and kill Jews!! This alone together with the awful events that have unfolded in the south of Israel should stir into action all good-minded people everywhere, and especially Christians. This wickedness has become so evident and manifest that it cannot be justified or just ignored. No one can sit on the fence in this matter and truly for the wider Church in the world a day of reckoning has come!! It can stand by and watch the Jews be murdered again, as it did 80 years ago or come to their defense and aid!
This day arrived in Germany on Kristalnaght 80 years ago and history affirms that by and large the Christian world failed to discern between good and evil and rather chose to stand on the sidelines and let the Jews die! History has condemned them for it and it will do the same again if we fail today.
A delivered people
In all of Israel’s journey God has nevertheless defended and ultimately delivered His people by “His outstretched arm” and in these days “the new Nazis” of our time who have ruthlessly set out to murder the children of Israel literally in the south of Israel will be destroyed again. About this you must have no doubt. In striking out at Israel, in such a barbaric manner Hamas, Hezbollah and Iran have struck out at the God of Israel and He will destroy them. Just as He ultimately did to Pharoah, the Babylonians, Haman and the Nazis. The “writing is on the wall” again and Hamas has been found wanting and will be brought down and must be, even for the sake of the nations.
Final thoughts
Israel today is a broken-hearted nation as are Jews everywhere. God has always allowed these awful things to happen in her long journey that spans 4000 years beginning with her bondage in Egypt. Some of this has mystery in it but one thing is sure, all of it is a lesson in the nature of evil and of the existence of the Devil and of the total depravity of the human condition. For this reason, the book of Revelation, in its twelfth chapter, pictures Israel in a life and death struggle with the Devil because she carries in her long historical journey the saving plan of God for the salvation of the world. Paul tells us that even her rejection of Jesus is for the blessing of the nations and that she remains “beloved for the sake of the fathers.” In the light of this I urge you to be very careful as to how you will respond to this conflict today. The God of Israel is watching!!
In the light of all this please pray:
  1.  That God will comfort His people and use us to do it.
  2. That God will bind up the broken-hearted in Israel.
  3. That God will deliver Israel again by His outstretched arm.
  4. That God will protect her young people on the field of battle and give them supernatural strength.
  5. That God will help the leaders of Israel to have wisdom beyond themselves.
  6. That the Church, unlike in the Nazi era, will stand up in support of Israel….and,
  7. Through it all, as in the past, the redemptive purpose of God for her, the Palestinians and the nations will be furthered through this conflict.
May God, by Jesus Christ, be with you all!
Malcolm Hedding
The Battle for Israel

The Battle for Israel

Bible Church Israel

Dear Friends,

At the root of the real battle for Israel is the fact that nations, peoples and entities of all types are in rebellion against the God of the Bible. This rebellion is wicked and evil and is designed to destroy God and His redemptive purpose in the earth. These evil entities are fueled by the Devil and his unseen demonic powers with whom they willingly co-operate.

Unable to attack God they resort to the next and only option and that is to ruthlessly attack the people who are named by Him. This is so because He reveals Himself to the world through them as the God of Israel. That is, to put it another way, the God of the Jews! This is the clear teaching of Psalm 83:

“Do not keep silent, O God! Do not hold your peace, and do not be still,
O God! For behold, Your enemies make a tumult, and those who hate
You have lifted up their head. They take crafty counsel against Your
people, and consulted together against Your sheltered ones. They
have said, “Come, let us cut them off from being a nation, that the name
of Israel may be remembered no more.”

In these last few days we have witnessed the pure evil and wickedness of Hamas who in the name of their Muslim religion, and shouting “Allah is Great”, massacred 1200 Jews on one day.

Just yesterday we learned that Israel’s army discovered a Kibbutz in the south of the country where two hundred men, women and children were murdered. They were gunned down in cold blood, the young women were immobilized by being shot in the legs and then they were raped and killed. In addition they found forty infants, a good number of which had been beheaded and dismembered. Such evil, as the President of Israel stated, was last seen in the Holocaust! The same devils have infested these Islamic entities , including Iran, with the intention of liquidating Israel, the Jews everywhere and even the Christians. In fact, just two days ago a Hamas leader in Gaza actually affirmed this.

However, the truth is, that according to Psalm 83, in attacking Israel in this most barbaric and evil manner they have in fact attacked the God of Israel, the God of the Bible. His anger is aroused and, as the psalmist said, He will now arise, He will not be silent and He will not be still. His enemies will be scattered! In fact He will arise through the very people that they hoped to massacre and He will humiliate and destroy them just as He did in the Six Day War of 1967.

The days ahead will be tough and we must arise to and join the battle against this evil entity by taking a place of intercession on behalf of Israel and we must do all that we can to comfort them in practical ways. Now is the time to act. Eighty years ago the Church was silent as the Nazis murdered the Jews but things are different now as the Lord has raised up a spiritual army in the nations, numbering in the millions, who will come to their aid and are.

Cheryl and I are still in Israel and I can tell you that the nation is united, demonstrated by the formation of a unity government and 850,000 young men and women who have responded to the call to take up arms and defend their people. There is apprehension in the air as everyone awaits Israel’s assault against Gaza by which Hamas, and all its fellow islamists, will be eliminated. It is similar to the apprehension that was felt in England, America and beyond when thousands of young people stormed the beaches of Normandy in June of 1944 in order to deal with exactly the same evil entity. The God of Israel helped them and He will do the same today. Of this you can be sure! Please join the battle for Israel.

Malcolm Hedding

The War Against the Jews

The War Against the Jews

Blog Hamas Israel

“The Egyptian, the Babylonian, and the Persian rose, filled
the planet with sound and splendor, then faded to dream-
stuff and passed away; the Greek and the Roman followed
and made a vast noise, and they are gone; other peoples
have sprung up and held their torch high for a time, but it
burned out, and they sit in the twilight now, or have vanished.
The Jew saw them all, beat them all, and is now what he always
was, exhibiting no decadence, no infirmities of age, no
weakening of his parts, no slowing of his energies, no dulling
of his alert and aggressive mind. All things are mortal but the
Jew; all other forces pass, but he remains. What is the secret
of his immortality?”

Mark Twain

The war against the Jews has been waged from the dawn of history and is relentless until this very day. It is a saga of great proportions and significance though many fail to see it or appreciate it. It has one goal in mind and that is the liquidation of the Jewish people and the Jewish state. The world wants a new world order that is “Juden rein” (free of Jews). The attempt to murder the Jews has taken many forms including open hostility and wickedness as we witnessed in the Second World War; although, unable to achieve this end by conventional war, in recent years this attack against the Jews has been political and very often couched in the language of peace and political intrigue. It is waged according to a narrative that is inaccurate and pure myth but one that is accepted in most circles as truth. Just the idea, for instance, of Israeli occupation of Arab lands is totally untrue but accepted everywhere. The Palestinians never ever had a state in history and the ground they claim for a state was in fact occupied for centuries by the Ottoman Turkish Empire and then illegally by the Jordanians from 1948 to 1967. Before that from 1917 onwards it was mandated to the British Empire as a consequence of the First World War. Indeed the restoration of the Jewish state in 1948 came into existence by the will of the international community expressed through the United Nations but previously ratified by the San Remo Agreement of 1922. Of course these facts mean nothing to those who seek only the destruction of the Jews and Israel.

Collaborating with evil

Today Hamas, Hezbollah, Fatah and all their fellow travelers are fully committed to the liquidation of Israel. This fact is not hearsay or rumor, no it is enshrined in their charters and confirmed by their statements; made frequently in the Arabic speaking press. The school books and TV programs for children in the Palestinian Authority and in Gaza, and indeed all over the Arab world, constantly demonize the Jewish people and Israel and thereby incite their impressionable minds to hatred.  In addition, all over the Muslim world the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” are routinely printed and distributed and regarded as fact even though this work has been discredited as a forgery and sadly the most read book on contemporary political history is Hitler’s, “ Mein Kamph.”This too is on public record and all of this can be verified by a visit to the website of Palestinian Media Watch, MEMRI and Amazon books. It’s all out in the open for all to see. The Jews are likened to pigs and apes and suicide attacks against them are glorified as the ultimate goal in life! Those who carry out this goal are honored by having streets and squares named after them in Palestinian towns and cities and it is believed that they have instant access to paradise accompanied by erotic pleasures.

This same radical Islamic menace collaborated with Hitler in the hope that his triumph would also bring about the complete annihilation of all Jews. He came close but thank God was defeated and yet today the world community expects Israel to sit down and make peace with “Hitler!” That is, with people who fully embrace his vision and seek to complete it. Hamas and Fatah now have a unity agreement that, according to the Hamas leadership must go further by pursuing the total destruction of Israel and the murder of Jews everywhere. All of this is the backdrop to the awful events unfolding in Europe today and as we have now witnessed especially in France in terms of the Charlie Hebdo massacre and the hostage taking and slaughter of Jews at the Hyper Cacher super-market. Intimidated by their large Muslim communities the Europeans have tolerated attacks against Jews for years but because liberal politicians deny the sinister goals of the Islamists they have largely turned a blind eye until now. The events in France have now awakened the appeasing Europeans to the fact that they too are the target of Jihad and in the end, like the Jews, are just infidels that have to be subdued or killed! The warning signs were always there and yet these were ignored because they came for the Jews first and no one really cared but now they are coming for everyone and I fear that it could be too late for Europe. The Jews, however, have a homeland to go to that is thriving and secure; in spite of the rough neighborhood in which it is situated. The State of Israel is their refuge and now the 11th Aliyah is about to take place. Hundreds of thousands of Jews will leave Europe and even England and go home to their ancestral dwelling place; the hills plains and valleys of Zion. Just seventy odd years after the Holocaust the Europeans have again betrayed the Jews. This is sobering indeed and the events now unfolding in the Ukraine are just as troubling. Jews are being targeted for the misfortunes of the Ukrainians as that country is progressively being invaded and conquered by Russia. Will the west stand up and stop this aggression? The answer is no. So, the Jews will leave and go home. Thank God!

Sadly, a world without a moral compass and unable to identify evil is therefore pressurizing Israel to make what would be a suicide pact with a new version of Nazism! Many of the nations pushing for this would not do it themselves but somehow it is good enough for the Jews! One has to wonder why all this is happening? Are these people stupid, just ignorant or is there another agenda being followed? Or, maybe still there is a spiritual reality behind the War against the Jews!

The God of Israel

Given that the very essence of sin is rebellion against God, not only in terms of where He is and what He is but also who He is, it is therefore  not surprising that anything that reminds a rebellious world of God will also be attacked. This is the nature of sin that lurks in the heart of every human being. If then this God calls into existence a people to reflect His character and take His name one can expect this people to be the target of rebellion or evil. From the very day of Israel’s calling and close association with the only true God this war began and it has never stopped. It separates and divides the world and as long as the Jew exists it will rage. It is a desperate war and, if it were not for the faithfulness of God, the Jews would have vanished a long time ago. This is the answer to Mark Twain’s question in the quote above. The war against the Jews is in fact a war against God Himself!

Note the first four verses of Psalm 83:
“Do not keep silent, O God!
Do not hold your peace,
and do not be still, O God!
For behold, Your enemies make a tumult;
And those who hate You have lifted up their head.
They have taken crafty counsel against Your people,
and consulted together against Your sheltered ones.
They have said, “Come, and let us cut them off from
Being a nation, that the name of Israel may be remembered no

It is to be noted that the enemies of God strike out against Him by making War Against the Jews!  This war will then not stop until the evil in the human heart has been overcome by redeeming love or destroyed by judgment! Needless to say, the honour and existence of the only true God is at stake in this war and thus Israel will never be destroyed because God Himself, the God of the Bible, has vouched safe her existence! This is the promise of His word. We however are invited to “show our colors” by standing with and praying for Israel. In this we don’t work for God but with Him against those who, from generation to generation, pursue the “War Against the Jews.” Like Corrie Ten Boom, Raoul Wallenberg, Dietrich Bonhoeffer and many others of the Second World War era, we will help the Jews go home by supporting the “Great Return” or Aliyah of the Jews to Israel. We may be few in number as they were but we are on the right side of history as they also turned out to be.

Malcolm Hedding.

Islam, Israel and Christianity

Islam, Israel and Christianity

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“For the love of Christ compels us, because we

judge thus: that if One died for all, then all died.”

Christianity—–               2Corinthians 5:14

“You shall neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress

him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.”

Judaism———-Exodus 22:21

“Do not hanker for peace with infidels, behead

them when you catch them.”

Islam————-Quran 47:4

To equate the violence of Islam with Christianity is just off the wall apologetics and a denial of the reality on the ground facing us all today. Nowhere, in the world, for the past hundreds of years, has Christianity sought to bring about a global political kingdom. Christianity has and can thrive within any political system and it does not seek to usurp the host cultural/political order in which it finds itself as Islam does and is attempting to do.  Christians do have a right to “compete in the market of ideas” but this is done peacefully and democratically and, to be sure, the influence of these ideas have made the West great and produced a world leader in values related to freedom in the United States of America. This is not to deny that Christianity, some five hundred years ago did not build a kingdom known as Christendom, but this is not the dictate of its biblical revelation and the religion has thrived everywhere without such a goal. Its adherence merely seek to be “salt and light” in every community that they find themselves and the New Testament exhorts believers to submit to the governing authorities and indeed to pray for them; all the while being exemplary citizens. (Romans 13:1-7)(1Timothy 2:1-7) Our kingdom is presently not of this world and our citizenship is in heaven (Philippians 3:20) and so we seek no earthly kingdom other than the one that will arrive with the dramatic and visible return of Jesus to Jerusalem.

Islam by contrast is a religious civilization based on the acquisition of land. It seeks for, believes in and is prepared to wage war (Jihad) and kill for a political kingdom called a Caliphate, which will rule the world according to Islamic law which is called Sharia. This is its stated revelation and teaching in the Quran and the Hadith and it is openly proclaimed on the streets of London, Paris, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Berlin, Oslo and New York! Where Islam is in the dominant position of power, as in the Middle East, it will not tolerate the free propagation of Christianity and indeed, if a Muslim converts to Christianity, he or she will be beheaded. This is a regular practice in Saudi Arabia. The freedoms that Muslims enjoy in western democracies, which have been predominantly influenced by Christianity, are not afforded to Christians and Jews in the Islamic world.

Israel’s journey to nationhood was in the context of suffering violence, genocide and barbarism the depth of which we know nothing of and do not appreciate. To become a nation she, having been committed to servitude by her Egyptian overlords, had to flee to a harsh wilderness where, once again she was set upon by foreign nations and then she had to enter a land that, by the gift of God, was hers but which was filled with violent warlike tribes. These uncivilized tribes were not simply unceremoniously removed by Israel’s conquest of them. In fact scripture reveals that God waited  400 years for them to repent and change but when they entrenched themselves in the very worst forms of wickedness and violence God sent Israel into the region as His instrument of judgment. (Genesis 15:13-16)(Deuteronomy 9:4) Israel was the hope of the world since without her presence and revelation in the world God would have destroyed everything! This was the message of the great flood and immediately afterwards the book of Genesis introduces us to the call of Abraham.  (Genesis 6:5) God’s divine mission, embedded in Israel, was in fact a blessing for all nations and families of the world but Israel had to get a foothold in the Promised Land for this blessing to be realized. (Genesis 12:1-3) Thereafter the Jews have never been a warlike people and they have never embraced a mandate for global conquest. By contrast their revelation, called the Bible, has civilized the world with its remarkable code of conduct but they have remained a small people wishing only to be left alone! (Numbers 23:9) In fact it is the Jews who have been routinely subjected to genocide by empires, big and small, that have set out to destroy them. No nation on earth has had to fight for its survival as they have had to do and still do. To equate their journey with that of Islam and thereby attempt to prove some sort of equivalence is ridiculous and intellectually dishonest. Much of the conflict over Israel has had to do with unseen demonic powers that are determined to frustrate her role in history as the vehicle of world redemption; they are determined to extinguish her light. Sadly, too many willing idiots are seduced by this sinister agenda.

Israel’s unfolding revelation, preached by Jesus her greatest son, gave voice to the internal nature of the Kingdom of God. He said, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed for lo, the kingdom of God will be in you. “ (Luke 17:21) Before Pilate Jesus affirmed that He was in fact no threat to Caesar because His kingdom was not of this world. (John 18:36) Therefore, He said, if it were my followers would fight but it is not! By contrast Mohammed’s followers do fight, are called to fight and will continue to fight until their kingdom on earth is established. They will crush little children, crucify Christians and behead anyone who gets in their way, as we now witness, to establish their Caliphate and with it sharia law. Their founder did these things routinely and thus set forth the example for them to follow. Actually on one day he beheaded 800 people who were deemed infidels! Do we see this picture in Jesus? For Him violence was no way to pursue righteousness and had to be rejected and replaced with love for one’s enemies and forgiveness. Indeed He mirrored these very things for He was unjustly convicted, condemned and crucified and yet said, “Father forgive them, they know not what they do.” (Luke 23:34) Consequently, the Christian Church today nowhere advocates for violence as a means by which to spread its message and those who did centuries ago had no biblical mandate to do so and have not been emulated.

To assert then that Christianity is as dangerous as political Islam is just nonsense and, to use an American word, disingenuous. Those who are making this claim are quite simply engaging in mischief and their position says more about them than anything else.

Islam by contrast advocates for Jihad (holy war) and those who give themselves to it are simply being true to their revelation. True Muslims will do what Mohammed did just as true Christians will do as Jesus did. In actual fact the unfolding revelation of Islam in the Quran is toward violence; as any well educated Muslim will tell you that the “Medina Verses” of the Quran, which were more benign in nature, are subservient (less authoritative) to the “Mecca Verses”, which are more violent and call for the death of Jews and infidels. Even Muslims that fail to pray as they should every day are threatened with death. This is why ISIS, the pure form of Islam, to which Muslims from all over the world are running to join, will destroy moderate Muslims and Muslims who seek to live at peace with their neighbors whoever they might be. They will especially kill Muslims like King Abdullah of Jordan as they consider him a “sell out” to the western democracies. In this regard they have already put him on notice.

Political Islam is gaining strength all over the world and the assertion that it is just a small minority who have hijacked and distorted Islam is just not true. They have now murdered millions of people all over the world including, as they see it, hundreds and thousands of apostate Muslims. In South Sudan alone two million Christians were murdered by political Islam and I could write about Nigeria, Mali, Northern Africa, Yemen, Somalia, Pakistan, Darfur, Afghanistan the USA and of course the Middle East. The carnage will continue until someone has the courage to call this conflict what it is; a war against political Islam! No amount of political correct language is going to solve this problem and if there are so many moderate peace loving Muslims in the world then now is the time for their voices to be heard in mass protests on the streets and Capitals of the world; if not now then when?

Malcolm Hedding.

Denying the Truth and Supporting Wickedness

Denying the Truth and Supporting Wickedness

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One of the great spiritual tests of the age facing the nations, the church world-wide and people everywhere is the question of Israel. Israel’s latest war with Hamas has brought this into focus again because the issues are clear but many in all walks of life, including the media, apparently cannot face up to them.

So here are the facts:
The constitution or founding charter of Hamas openly calls for the extermination of all of Israel and of all Jews everywhere. This is no secret and quite simply the truth; I know it because I have a copy of this document in my study. This is clearly evil and unacceptable, or should be, to all right thinking people but apparently our learned politicians and daily commentators, in all spheres, cannot get it!

The founding of Hamas has roots in Nazi Germany since the Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin Al Husseini was a Nazi and actually went to Berlin during the war years and gave his full support to Hitler and especially so to his plan to exterminate all the Jews. He, after the war, returned to the Middle East and was one of the founders of the Muslim Brotherhood and Hamas. This too is evil in every way but still the world refuses to condemn them and Jimmy Carter calls upon the global community to legitimize them!

Hamas then provokes a number of wars with Israel by indiscriminately launching 14,000 missiles at Israel’s towns, cities and villages since the year 2005 and again the world cannot bring itself to fully support Israel in this on going conflict. In fact it condemns Israel even though it is the first army in the world to compromise its attack initiatives by telling the enemy beforehand where it is going to strike next. This to save lives and yet when civilians die, as unfortunately they always will in a war zone, Israel is condemned and not the aggressor Hamas. Actually being quite unable to identify evil when they see it the world media seeks to place Israel and Hamas on a platform of moral equivalence. This is wickedness!

To make matters worse Hamas uses child slave labor to construct tunnels wherein many of these children died. Children are also hung on walls to deter the Israel Air force from striking Hamas’ military positions in civilian areas. The pictures are there on Facebook for all to see but there is no outrage; rather Israel is condemned for the fact that 200 children died in the conflict. The fact is, hundreds of thousands of Israeli children would have died if it were not for the Iron Dome missile interception system and the many bomb-shelters that Israel has placed in every home, building and public area. This too is wickedness as is the general use of civilians as shields against attack after they have provoked the war and are the aggressors. Once again Israel must not be allowed to destroy her enemy as this would be the deployment of disproportionate force. The idea is that Israel must lose as many lives as her aggressive enemy and if she doesn’t then she is at fault.

So here we are allowing Jew hatred to spread through the world and Israel, the only democracy in the Middle East, is becoming more and more vilified with every passing day. The massacre of thousands of civilians in Syria, Iraq and Africa is totally ignored. This is exactly what the Hamas Nazi radicals want and the western media has fanned much of these flames of hatred by its wicked duplicity in this matter. It has thereby sided with evil even though it knows better.

This conflict will rage on and yet, in the end, the truth will win out just as it did seventy odd years ago and Israel will be vindicated. To stand with Israel now is not a difficult decision because the choice between good and evil is not a complex one. The God of the Bible also found this to be an easy decision because He states that while the nations rage at Israel He will, in the end, defend her and set up His King on His holy hill in Jerusalem. It would be good to choose what He has already chosen that it may go well with you on that day!

Malcolm Hedding.

The Killing of Three Israeli Teenagers

The Killing of Three Israeli Teenagers

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The brutal murder of the three Israeli teenagers, Gilad Shaar, Naftali Frenkel and Eyal Yifrach, kidnapped nearly three weeks ago is a crime that is unimaginable and can only be committed by people who have lost any understanding of what it is to be human. The killers when caught, and they will be, should be given a fair trial and then, when found guilty, be subjected to the death penalty. This is nothing short of the genocide of three whole worlds and it must be treated as such. It is with disgust that we also witness the celebrations in Gaza of these heinous crimes. To be sure this demonstrates to the world the true nature of the beast that Israel is grappling with. President Abbas is directly accountable for this outrage as he is the head of state of the Palestinian Authority Unity Government. He cannot escape this responsibility and the international community should hold his feet to the fire on this matter. This crime is the true face of his movement and has been for decades. It has thus once and for all unmasked them for what they are.

We rightly mourn with Israel today and thus share her pain and grief but we should all be assured of this; that this cowardly and dastardly act will not weaken Israel’s resolve or intimidate her. No, she will stand strong, uphold civilized values and norms and in the end win this battle against raw evil. We in particular share the grief that must now overwhelm three precious Israeli families and we know that God’s great love will comfort and care for them.

Malcolm Hedding

The Kidnapping of Three Israeli Children

The Kidnapping of Three Israeli Children

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On behalf of Malcolm Hedding Ministries and its world-wide constituency I wish to express outrage at the global, and yes European Union, response to the kidnapping of three Israeli young people by the newly formed Palestinian Unity Government. This type of barbaric, cruel and cowardly act demonstrates yet again that Israel is dealing with an entity that is tribal and uncivilized having no interest in peace but driven by a religious ideology that is dedicated to the total destruction of the Jewish State. There is no excuse for this evil behavior and it is stunning to hear and read that western politicians are calling upon Israel to demonstrate restraint as she seeks to employ all the means at her disposal to return these young people to their families.

Indeed there should be global condemnation of this crime and most certainly all financial aid to this newly formed Palestinian government should be suspended. I am fully aware that merely calling upon this government to return these innocent children will achieve nothing. We all know this. This is no time for the madness of political correctness and thus Israel must be fully supported as she employs every means available to her to recover these three children safely.

It is our prayer and hope that this will happen speedily.

Malcolm Hedding.

Passover and Easter Update 2014

Passover and Easter Update 2014

Blog Church Israel Jesus

This year, as in some previous years, Passover and Easter fall in the same week. Their connection is not just one that has to do with our annual calendars but they mirror each other, though separated by thousands of years in terms of their historical context. The one took place 3300 years ago in Egypt and the other 2000 years ago in Jerusalem. What they both have in common is:

1.    The condemnation of the world.
Without the vicarious suffering of another the world, including all of Israel in Egypt, would fall prey to death at the hands of the Angel of Death. Death is more than just our physical expiration; it is being separated from God for all eternity.  We are all a people condemned to die because of our sins.

2.    The marvelous grace of God.
That which saves us from death is not our good works or efforts but the grace of God alone. The Jews in Egypt were as much at risk as the Egyptians were as the Angel of Death approached. Their only hope was the blood of a lamb that had to be appropriated on the door posts and lintels of their homes. In like manner only the blood of the Lamb of God, applied to the doorposts of our hearts can save us from death. God’s grace is wonderful and frees us from a “works based” attempt to please Him. By grace we have been saved!

3.    The changing of our circumstances.
The Israelites of old had to be dressed and ready to leave Egypt in haste. They would now be a changed people who would find their new life in God who came down to deliver them by His mighty hand. They would never be the same again. In like manner we leave the world (Egypt) and follow Christ Who has transformed us, changed our hearts and made us “new creatures.”

4.    The pursuit of the enemy.
Though redeemed and brought under God’s protection the Israelites were relentlessly pursued by the Egyptians at many levels and not just physically. It’s one thing to come out of Egypt but it’s entirely another to get Egypt out of your heart! For forty years and more the Israelites battled and struggled with the latter. We too have been saved from sin but it takes a lifetime to get sin out of our hearts! In both cases however the enemy has been defeated. “The horse and rider has been thrown into the sea!”

5.    The care, provision and protection of God.
The Exodus story serves as a marvelous lesson about the love that God has for His people. Those redeemed by the blood of a lamb are God’s precious people a holy nation and a royal priesthood. He watches over them day and night. Likewise the Church is  also deemed a holy nation and a royal priesthood and Jesus said “Lo I am with you always even unto the end of the age.” The lesson is clear; those that are blood bought” enjoy God’s presence and cannot be separated from Him.

6.    The hope of a promised land.
The Israelites went out of Egypt with the sure assurance that they would inherit a land of milk and honey; and they did. We too have gone out of the Egypt of sin looking for a city that has “foundations whose architect and builder is God.” God desires to dwell forever with His children and indeed He will. Jesus said, “In my Father’s house are many mansions; I go to prepare a place for you that where I am you may be also.”

Isn’t it amazing how Passover and Easter reflect each other? The truth is, they do reflect each other and are really one and the same! Just this week, as Passover was beginning, a radical Nazi attacked two Jewish centers in America. Shouting “Heil Hitler” he opened fire at will and indiscriminately at Jews but in fact killed three Christians! This tragedy speaks to us in many ways but powerfully it reminds us that Jews and Christians belong together and in the end that which will finally unite them will be the blood of a Lamb! What a wonderful Day that will be!

May you celebrate a blessed Passover and Easter.

Malcolm Hedding